Bioavailability – The Mineral Chelate
The importance of bioavailability is obvious. If consuming a magnesium supplement has little effect on improving the body’s magnesium balance, there is no reason to ingest it. Signs of inferior mineral supplements include the use of cheap, poorly absorbed, rock-salt minerals like calcium carbonate and magnesium oxide (See Figure 1). These mineral forms slow and limit absorption, relying on adequate stomach acid to release magnesium ions which then enter the body via passive diffusion. And, because they tend to remain in the intestines longer, these forms of mineral supplements can cause intestinal distress such as constipation (calcium carbonate) or diarrhea (magnesium oxide).
• 8.8 times greater absorption than magnesium oxide
• 5.6 times greater absorption than magnesium sulfate
• 2.3 times greater absorption than magnesium carbonate
• At a dose of 400 mg, magnesium chelate significantly reduced or eliminated menstrual abdominal discomfort
• Multiple double-blind studies found urinary excretion of magnesium chloride higher than magnesium glycinate, proving superior absorption
• Magnesium glycinate is shown to have a reduced laxative effect when compared to other forms of magnesium
Mineral chelates are gentle, “gut-friendly” minerals that do not cause diarrhea that often accompanies magnesium oxide and other rock-salt forms. Albion®’s mineral chelates have extensive clinical research proving their superior bioavailability, biologic activity, stability, and improved tolerance.
Studies to date have found that magnesium supplementation maintains healthy blood pressure levels. Calcium is essential to the contraction of muscles, while magnesium aids muscle relaxation. Insufficient magnesium levels can contribute to constriction of the muscles in blood vessels and trigger changes in blood pressure levels.
Several prospective studies have examined associations between magnesium intake and heart health. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies found that higher serum levels of magnesium were significantly associated with enhanced heart health and optimized blood flow to the heart.
Magnesium is integral for the transport of insulin from the bloodstream to cells. Increasing magnesium levels has been shown to maintain normal blood sugar levels. Diets with higher amounts of magnesium are associated with blood sugar balance, due to the role of magnesium in glucose metabolism.
Most investigations of magnesium intake and insulin balance have been prospective cohort studies. A meta-analysis of seven of these studies, which included 286,668 patients, found that a 100 mg/day increase in total magnesium intake promoted insulin balance by a statistically significant 15%. Another meta-analysis of eight prospective cohort studies that followed 271,869 men and women for an extended period of time found a significant association between magnesium intake from food and insulin balance.
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- Johnson S. The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency. Med Hypotheses 2001; 56(2): 163-70.
- Ryder KM, Shorr RI, Bush AJ, Kritchevsky SB, Harris T, Stone K, Cauley J, Tylavsky FA. Magnesium intake from food and supplements is associated with bone mineral density in healthy older white subjects. J AM Geriatr Soc 2005; 53(11):1875-80.
- Gobbo LCD, Imamura F, Wu JH, Otto MCO, Chiuve SE, Mozaffarian D. Circulating and dietary magnesium and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2013; published online May 29, 2013.
- Graff et al. Magnesium: wide spread benefits. Albion Research Notes 1992; 1(2):1.
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- Abrams SA, et al., Advances in Magnesium Research Nutrition and Health, Op Cit, 109-114, 2001.
- Schuette SA, Lashner BA, Janghorbani IY. Bioavailability of Magnesium diglycinate vs. magnesium oxide in patients with ileal resection. J Parent Ent Nutr, 18:430-435, 1994.
- Roussouw J, Brummelen R. The bioavailability of four magnesium preparations. Publication pending.
- Institute of Medicine (IOM). Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997.
- Rude RK. Magnesium. In: Coates PM, Betz JM, Blackman MR, Cragg GM, Levine M, Moss J, White JD, eds. Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare; 2010:527-37.
- Rude RK. Magnesium. In: Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, Tucker KL, Ziegler TR, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 11th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012:159-75.
- Dickinson HO, Nicolson D, Campbell F, Cook JV, Beyer FR, Ford GA, Mason J. Magnesium supplementation for the management of primary hypertension in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006: CD004640.
- Del Gobbo LC, Imamura F, Wu JHY, Otto MCdO, Chiuve SE, Mozaffarian D. Circulating and dietary magnesium and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2013;98:160-73.
- Larsson SC, Wolk A. Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. J Intern Med 2007;262:208-14.
- Rodriguez-Moran M, Simental Mendia LE, Zambrano Galvan G, Guerrero-Romero F. The role of magnesium in type 2 diabetes: a brief based-clinical review. Magnes Res 2011;24:156-62.
- Schulze MB, Schulz M, Heidemann C, Schienkiewitz A, Hoffmann K, Boeing H. Fiber and magnesium intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:956–65.
- Rude RK, Singer FR, Gruber HE. Skeletal and hormonal effects of magnesium deficiency. J Am Coll Nutr 2009;28:131–41.
- Tucker KL. Osteoporosis prevention and nutrition. Curr Osteoporos Rep 2009;7:111-7.
Always be sure to speak with your healthcare provider before starting any new nutritional supplement when pregnant or nursing. For children, we recommend speaking with your child's pediatrician regarding proper dosing. Store away from children.